Many of my ESOL students need a framework to form a proper sentence, especially in the early stages of English acquisition. The order of our words within sentences is often different from the order of words in sentences in a student's home language and a frame is an easy support for helping the student express himself.
Many times a student is required to write about cause and effect. This assignment could be for science, health or a literature assignment.
Giving the student a framework helps flesh out the sentence so the student can concentrate on the words that make a cause and effect sentence.
I was ____(sick)__________so I ____(stayed home)___.
I feel ____(sick)___because____(I ate a lot of candy)____.
The ___boy_____ did/did not ____pass___ because he did/did not study.
In order to ____(win)_, you might have to ___(train harder)_______.
Because of _( high winds)__,the roof came off during the ________
The words inside the brackets are examples of words students might use to fill in the blanks – the framework. Notice that the sentences are all framed to provide cause and effect examples.
Frames can be used in any subject. Think of social studies and the causes and effects of war. Frames help express the results of science experiments or the motives for the protagonist and antagonist and the results of their actions. Frames are very versatile.
To aid an ESOL student or any struggling student, a word bank could be added to the sheet with the terms of the lesson.
Lindell Long teaches ESOL at Clover Middle and High Schools in Clover, South Carolina, a position she’s held for the last 18 years. She’s married with 4 children and so many pets her family fears she’ll bring home a stray yak one day.